composite numberA natural number that has at least one factor other than 1 and itself.
denominatorThe bottom number of a fraction that tells how many equal parts are in the whole.
divisibility testA rule that tells quickly whether dividing a number by another number can be done without leaving a remainder.

Can be divided by a number without leaving a remainder. For example, 20 is divisible by 4 because 20 ÷ 4 = 5 (no remainder).


The number that is being divided into the dividend in a division problem. In the problem 8 ÷ 2 = 4, 2 is the divisor.

even numberA whole number that is divisible by 2.
exponential notation

A notation that represents repeated multiplication using a base and an exponent. For example, 24 is notation that means 2 • 2 • 2 • 2. This notation tells you that 2 is used as a factor 4 times. 24 = 16. (Also called exponential form.)


A number that is multiplied by another number or numbers to get a product. For example, in the equation 4 • 5 = 20, 4 and 5 are factors.

factor pair

A pair of numbers whose product is a given number. For example, 2 and 15 are a factor pair of 30 because 2 •15 = 30. Both 2 and 15 are factors of 30.

factor treeA diagram showing how a number can be written as factors, and those factors written as a product of factors, and so on until only prime numbers are used.
multipleAny number that has a given number as a factor. For example, 4, 8, 16, and 200 are multiples of 4, because 4 is a factor of each of these numbers.
natural numberThe numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and so on. Also called counting numbers.
numeratorThe top number of a fraction that tells how many parts of a whole are being represented.
prime factorizationA number written as the product of its prime factors.
prime numberA natural number with exactly two factors: 1 and the number itself.